Views:22 Author:Site Editor Publish Time: 2020-10-30 Origin:Site
Any type of product will go through a process from the beginning of design to market sales, The control and progress of this process will directly affect product life and quality. This will affect product sales and ultimately affect the company's development and operations. Therefore, the operation and control of this process is particularly important!
Whether it is a large international group or a small and medium-sized enterprise will use this process. It is suitable for any industry in the market, Just the naming may be different,But the principle is absolutely the same
Here, we only talk about this process in the electronics industry. I hope that after reading this article, you can have a preliminary understanding of this process.
An electronic product will go through the following stages from market demand and positioning to the beginning of design, production, and sales. We summarize it into four stages(Of course, there are still some processes in the early stage of the project.
Such as PMP (Project Management Plan), etc.,) will not be explained here.
Stage1, we usually name it EVT. What is EVT? Its full spelling is "Engineering Verification Test", which is the engineering verification stage. We are used to calling it: functional verification stage
At this stage, the research and development electronic engineer (IE) is mainly responsible for designing products that meet electronic performance according to customer or market needs. Its purpose is very clear, regardless of structure or other influences.
The main purpose is to realize the basic functions of the product first(The so-called "regardless" does not really ignore it, it depends on the designer's level and experience.)
Says in a word, but it contains too much electrical performance theoretical knowledge, product design theoretical knowledge and manufacturing industry theoretical knowledge and experience, as well as equipment limitation requirements, process limitation requirements, standard requirements, etc.
(If I discuss it in detail here, it may take months or even years)
This is why some engineers design perfect products with one time, but some engineers go back and forth many times, and even fail to design qualified products? This is the embodiment of professionalism!
A professional IE engineer not only has a lot of theoretical foundation, but also has a wealth of practical experience. To meet this requirement is an expert in everyone's mouth! So such talents are very rare in today's society.
At this stage, a large number of laboratory experiments must be carried out, such as: basic function test, burn-in test, reliability test, EMI, EMC (electromagnetic interference, electromagnetic compatibility), etc., each must meet the standard to be qualified Products. So this stage is a relatively time-consuming stage
However, everyone only needs to remember the important point: that is the electrical function requirements of the product must be met first, and none of them are indispensable.
If all the basic functions are met and meet the goals defined by the industry FTY (First time yield) or the company defined goals, you can enter the next stage. Otherwise, the product is not allowed to enter the next stage.
Stage2: DVT-Design Verification Test, which we called: Design for manufacturing verification stage.
This stage is mainly led by the mechinical engineer (ME). Under the premise of ensuring the performance, try to improve the manufacturable product. It can't be said that I designed the product, the performance is no problem, and I don't care about the others. .
Then the manufacturing cannot produce this product at all, or it is very difficult to produce this product. The purpose at this stage is to solve these problems.
Why some factories have cost advantages, but some factories do not. This is one of the main problems. Professional factories produce 100 products an hour, and some factories can only produce 10 units of the same product.
This is one of the main reasons why other people's costs have advantages.
At this stage, the company will start to evaluate the automation equipment, fixtures, functional test fixtures, etc., to ensure the manufacturability of future mass production.
This stage will use MSA (Measurement System Analysis), GRR (Reproducibility Analysis), CPK (Key Process Capability Index) and other analytical methods to pave the way for the next stage of production.
DFMEA management methods are usually used to control the process and progress of the entire product.
When the FPY (one pass rate) reaches the standard of this stage (this standard is definitely higher than the EVT standard, depending on different requirements, but usually reaches more than 95%), and there is no design problem that affects the efficiency and manufacturing efficiency. Quality, you can enter the next stage.
Otherwise, it is not allowed to enter! (Of course, except for individual cases. Because this requirement is a theoretical requirement, and different companies have too many different cultures and purposes, so here is only the theoretical requirement, and how to do it depends on the situation)
Stage3, PVT-Pilot-run verification test, is the trial run verification stage, which we call: the small batch trial production stage.
This stage is mainly led by PE process engineers, using PFMEA management methods to verify the manufacturability of the product, as well as the risk factors that may cause product defects during the production process, such as man-made, environmental factors, and effective control of these risks.
At this stage, QC plan (quality control plan), PPAP (component approval procedure), SOP (standard work instruction), SIP (standard inspection work instruction) and other control documents must be basically formed.
At this time, FPY generally requires more than 99.9% to enter the next stage (of course, the standard is not static, depending on the different company/product).
Stage 4, MP-Mass Production.
This stage has been transferred to the manufacturing dept. and officially entered the mass production stage. Other units such as PE, QC, Pur, WH, Sales and other company-wide departments all need to provide manufacturing services to achieve customer delivery.
At this time, all relevant control documents have been issued.All the manufacturing operations of the product are under the control of the company, and there are no omissions or risks.
PE should also lead PDCA (continuous improvement), study lean-production, and study cost-saving solutions for companies and customers.
At the same time, the quality department uses SPC (statistical analysis methods, including 6-sigma/QC 7 tools/28 principles, etc.) to statistically analyze product quality data, study potential process risks, and promote continuous improvement to ensure product quality stability!
When a product goes through the above stages, its quality and delivery time can be basically guaranteed. Of course, no unit in this society can guarantee 100% without any problems, whether it is military or industrial/medical, etc., so we have been continuously improving (PDCA) to pursue excellence!
All these analysis methods and tools are interconnected. Every product, every step, every method, every device, every person, and any environment can be continuously improved, so PDCA is applicable to any industry in the world , Let's talk about PDCA in the next article.